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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 2009;46(4): 378-384.
doi: https://doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2009.46.4.378
Radiosurgical Considerations in the Treatment of Large Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations.
Sung Ho Lee, Young Jin Lim, Seok Keun Choi, Tae Sung Kim, Bong Arm Rhee
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. youngjinns@yahoo.co.kr
In order to establish the role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) in large intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), we analyzed clinical characteristics, radiological features, and radiosurgical outcomes. METHODS: Between March 1992 and March 2005, 28 of 33 patients with large AVMs (> 10 cm3 in nidus-volume) who were treated with GKS underwent single session radiosurgery (RS), and the other 5 patients underwent staged volumetric RS. Retrospectively collected data were available in 23 cases. We analyzed treatment outcomes in each subdivided groups and according to the AVM sizes. We compared the estimated volume, defined as primarily estimated nidus volume using MR images, with real target volume after excluding draining veins and feeding arteries embedded into the nidus. RESULTS: Regarding those patients who underwent single session RS, 44.4% (8/18) had complete obliteration; regarding staged volumetric RS, the obliteration rate was 40% (2/5). The complete obliteration rate was 60% (6/10) in the smaller nidus group (10-15 cm3 size), and 25% (2/8) in the larger nidus group (over 15 cm3 size). One case of cerebral edema and two cases (8.7%) of hemorrhage were seen during the latent period. The mean real target volume for 18 single sessions of RS was 17.1 cm3 (10.1-38.4 cm3), in contrast with the mean estimated volume of 20.9 cm3 (12.0-45.0 cm3).
The radiosurgical treatment outcomes of large AVMs are generally poor. However, we presume that the recent development in planning software and imaging devices aid more accurate measurement of the nidus volume, therefore improving the treatment outcome.
Key Words: Gamma Knife radiosurgery; Arteriovenous Malformation; Intracerebral Hemorrhage; Obliteration; Complication; Outcome
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