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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 2009;46(3): 226-231.
doi: https://doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2009.46.3.226
Types of Thromboembolic Complications in Coil Embolization for Intracerebral Aneurysms and Management.
Hong Ki Kim, Sung Kyun Hwang, Sung Hak Kim
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea. nshsg@ewha.ac.kr
We describe our clinical experiences and outcomes in patients who had thromboembolic complications occurring during endovascular treatment of intracerebral aneurysms with a review of the literature. The types of thromboembolic complications were divided and the treatment modalities for each type were described. METHODS: Between August 2004 and March 2009 we performed endovascular embolization with Guglielmi detachable coils for 173 patients with 189 cerebral aneurysms, including ruptured and unruptured aneurysms at our hospital. Sixty-eight patients were males and 105 patients were females. The age of patients ranged from 22-82 years (average, 58.8 years). We retrospectively evaluated this group with regard to complication rates and outcomes. The types of thromboembolic complications were classified into the following three categories: mechanical obstruction, distal embolic stroke, and stent-induced complications, which corresponded to types I, II, and III, respectively. A comparison of the clinical results was made for each type of complication. RESULTS: Only eight patients had a thromboembolic complication during or after a procedure (4.6%). Of the eight patients, two had a mechanical obstruction as the causative factor; the other three patients had distal embolic stroke as the causative factor. The remaining three patients had stent-induced complications. In cases of mechanical obstruction, recanalization occurred due to the use of intra-arterial thrombolytic agents in one of two patients. Nevertheless, a poor prognosis was seen. In the cases of stent-induced complications, in one of three patients in whom a thrombus developed following stent insertion, a middle cerebral artery territory infarct developed with a poor prognosis despite the use of wiring and an intra-arterial thrombolytic agent. In the cases of distal embolic stroke, all three patients achieved good results following the use of antiplatelet agents. CONCLUSION: Treatment for thromboemboic complications due to mechanical obstruction and stent-induced complications include antiplatelet and intra-arterial thrombolytic agents; however, this cannot guarantee a sufficient extent of effectiveness. Therefore, active treatments, such as balloon angioplasty, stent insertion, and clot extraction, are helpful.
Key Words: Thromboembolism; Coil embolizatio; Mechanical obstruction; Distal embolic stroke; Stent-induced complication
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