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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society > Volume 30(6); 2001 > Article
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 2001;30(6): 688-698.
Neuroglial Reaction in the Substantia Nigra and Striatum of 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Parkinson's Disease Rat Model.
Kyung Won Yang, Jae Hoon Sung, Moon Chan Kim, Moon Yong Lee, Sang Won Lee, Seung Jin Choi, Choon Keun Park, Joon Ki Kang
1Department of Neurosurgery, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Anatomy, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul, Korea.
OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease is a well-known neurodegenerative disease characterized by dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra. The reactive gliosis by activated astrocytes and microglias is no more regarded as a simple sequel of neuronal cell death. Microglial activation takes place in a stereotypic pattern with graded morphologic and functional(resting, activated and phagocytic) changes. In Parkinson's disease animal model, the degree of microglial activation along the nigro-striatal dopaminergic tract has not been studied intensively. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the characteristics of microglial reaction and to grade its degree of activation at substantia nigra and corpus striatum using 6-hydroxydopamine induced rat model of Parkinson's disease.
Using Sprague-Dawley rat, parkinsonian model was made by 6-hydroxydopamine(OHDA) induced destruction of medial and lateral substantia nigra(SN). The rat was sacrificed 3-, 5-, 7-, 14- and 21-day-after operation. For control group, we injected saline with same manner and sacrificed 3-day after operation. With immunohistochemistry, we examined dopaminergic neuronal cells and microglial expression using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and OX-42 antibodies, respectively. Also we performed in situ hybridization for osteopontin, a possible marker of subset in activated microglia.
1) In lesioned side of substantia nigra and corpus striatum, the TH immunoreactivity was markedly decreased in whole experimental groups. 2) Using optical densitometry, microglia induced immunoreactivity of OX-42 was counted at SN and corpus striatum. At SN, it was increased significantly on the lesioned side in control and all time-dependent experimental groups. At striatum, it was increased significantly in post lesion 3-day group only(p < 0.05). Compared to control group, immunoreactivity of OX-42 on lesioned side was increased in groups, except post lesion 21-day group, at SN. Only post lesion 3-day group showed significance at striatum(p < 0.05). Compared to SN region, immunoreactivity of OX-42 was much weaker in striatum. 3) Microscopically, the microglias showed typically different activation pattern. At SN, numerous phagocytic microglias were found at pars compacta and reticularis of lesion side. At striatum, no phagocytic form was found and the intensity of staining was much weaker. 4) At SN, the immunoreactivity of osteopontin showed definite laterality and it was markedly increased at pars compacta of lesion side with relatively short duration time. At striatum, however, it was not detected by in situ hybridization technique.
The nigral 6-OHDA induced rat model of Parkinson's disease revealed several characteristic patterns of microglial reaction. At SN, microglias was activated shortly after direct neuronal damage and maintained for about three weeks. In contrast, despite of sufficient dopaminergic insufficiency at striatum, activation of microglias was trivial, and distinguished 3 day later. Antegrade slow neuronal degeneration is major pathophysiology in striatal dopaminergic deficiency. So, the acuteness of neuronal damage and consequential degree of neuronal degeneration may be important factor for microglial activation in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Additionally, osteopontin may be a possible marker for several subsets of activated microglia, possibly the phagocytic form.
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