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Instructions for Authors > For Authors and Reviewers > Instructions for Authors

Amended, December 2021

General Information

  1. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society is the official journal of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and published bimonthly (1st day of January, March, May, July, September, and November). This Journal publishes important papers covering the whole field of neurosurgery, including studies in neuroscience, neurology, and molecular biology. Studies on rare cases and technical notes of special instruments or equipment that might be useful to the field of neurosurgical science are also acceptable. Papers, to be accepted, will include original work (clinical and laboratory research, 3500 words), case reports (1500 words), technical notes (1500 words), review articles (5000 words), letters to the editor (1200 words), etc. Review articles can be published upon specific request by the journal. Authors can publish special article with the approval from the editorial board. Case reports will not be considered for publication without peer review unless it gives new insights into a clinical problem. The rarity of disease condition is not a preliminary consideration for review. It is strongly recommended for the authors to describe the value of the manuscript to be published in the cover letter.
  2. It should be assured that authors must not simultaneously submit an identical or similar paper for publication elsewhere. Multiple publication is acceptable only in the case of meeting the criteria of Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (Ann Intern Med 108 : 258-265, 1988). Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with Uniform requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journal developed by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (February 2006).
  3. (Disclaimer) Neither the editors, publishers, nor the organizations (herein "JKNS") make any specific promises or guarantees regarding the Services, including any content or submissions. JKNS does not warrant that the operation of the Services will be error free, that all defects will be rectified, or in terms of accuracy, completeness, reliability, availability, suitability, quality, non-infringement, operation or result obtained from the use of services via JKNS that are included, provided, accessible or distributed. JKNS provides the Services, including any content or contribution contained in JKNS "AS IS" without any warranty or representation, to the maximum extent permitted by law to JKNS and its suppliers and licensors. Your use of JKNS-provided, accessible or JKNS-provided services is at your sole risk.
  4. All submitted manuscripts undergo vigorous peer review by experts in the same field.

Ethics Policy

The chief goal of our policy is threefold: to provide advice for our authors, to maintain the scholarly integrity of our journals and their content, and to detail the ethical responsibilities of JKNS, our editors and authors. We expect all authors to read and understand our ethics policy before submitting to any of our journals. This is in accordance with our commitment to the prevention of ethical misconduct, which we recognize to be a growing problem in academic and professional publications. It is important to note that most incidents of plagiarism, redundant publication, copyright infringement or similar occur because of a lack of understanding, and not through fraudulent intent. Our policy is one of prevention and not persecution. All the manuscripts should be prepared in strict observation of research and publication ethics guidelines recommended by the Council of Science Editors (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org), International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org), World Association of Medical Editors (WAME, http://www.wame.org), and the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE, https://www.kamje.or.kr/). Any study including human subjects or human data must be reviewed and approved by a responsible institutional review board (IRB). Please refer to the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki, revised in 2013 (https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wmadeclaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-researchinvolving-human-subjects/) for all investigations involving human materials. Animal experiments also should be reviewed by an appropriate committee (IACUC) for the care and use of animals. Also studies with pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee (IBC). The editor of JKNS may request submission of copies of informed consents from human subjects in clinical studies or IRB approval documents. The JKNS will follow the guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, http://publicationethics.org) for settlement of any misconduct.

1) Redundant Publication and Plagiarism

Redundant publication is defined as "reporting (publishing or attempting to publish) substantially the same work more than once, without attribution of the original source(s)". Characteristics of reports that are substantially similar include the following: (a) "at least one of the authors must be common to all reports (if there are no common authors, it is more likely plagiarism than redundant publication)," (b) "the subject or study populations are often the same or similar," (c) "the methodology is typically identical or nearly so," and (d) "the results and their interpretation generally vary little, if at all."

A study that has been posted on a preprint server is not considered as prior publication. However, the authors must notify in the title page whether their study has been posted on elsewhere.

If all or part of your patient population was previously reported, this should be mentioned in the Materials and Methods, with citation of the appropriate reference(s).

Please note that all submitted manuscripts must be subject to checks using the iThenticate service, in conjunction with CrossCheck, in order to detect instances of overlapping and similar text. The iThenticate software checks submissions against millions of published research papers, documents on the web, and other relevant sources. If plagiarism or misconduct is found, we will retract the article before peer-review process and contact the corresponding author requesting an explanation of the suspect material. In the event that a simple oversight is identified and corrected, no further action is needed. In more egregious cases, editors are obliged to contact the other authors of the manuscript and institutional leaders such as a department chair or dean, which may have serious consequences.

2) Data Fabrication

Data falsification can take many forms from overt to subtle. Clear-cut fabrication of results has no place in scientific literature. It can be difficult to identify and often is found only when co-authors or collaborators find serious questions about a manuscript and bring them to attention. In one case, a reviewer of a manuscript provided evidence that the data presented in no way could have been collected by the submitting authors. Journals must rely heavily on the honor system because they do not typically have direct access to primary data. More subtle forms of data falsification include embellishment, selective publication of results, or even non-publication of results. Efforts to limit these include clinical trials registration, preferably at the outset of a study. The policy of the ICMJE, followed by our journals, is that all clinical trials should be registered, preferably before enrollment of the first patient. ICMJE defines a clinical trial as “any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes” (http://www.icmje.org/about-icmje/faqs/clinical-trials-registration/). Note that certain publishable studies, such as retrospective studies or the use of registry data, do not currently require registration. Manipulation of figures is sometimes unethically done to support or strengthen a hypothesis. It is made easier with modern photo editing programs, but the same programs help us detect figure manipulation. A more subtle issue occurs when, if an author discovers after publication an error that he/she made, he/she ignores it to avoid embarrassment or to just avoid the bother of correcting it. Instead, the author should always notify the editorial office and get an erratum attached to the article. Not doing so is also considered unethical.

Authors have the responsibility to ensure that their published information is correct, to the best of their knowledge.

3) Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest may involve many individuals in the publication process including authors, reviewers, or editors. Conflicts may be financial, legal, scientific, or personal, including academic competition. Authors should address the statements regarding potential conflicts of interest including related information in a separated section entitled “Conflict of Interest” in their submitting manuscript. If there is no interest to declare then please state this: ‘There is no conflict of interest to disclose.’ The Editor-in-chief may reject manuscript that does not fulfill the above mentioned guideline.

4) Informed consent

Every individual has a right that cannot be infringed. Individuals participating in research have the right to determine what happens to collected (identifiable) personal data, what they say in research or interviews, and what happens to the pictures taken. It is therefore important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to their inclusion in the study. Details of the subject (name, date of birth, identity number, and other information) should not be published as written description, photographs, and genetic information unless it is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian participant) gave their informed consent for publication. When complete anonymity may not be achieved (for example, masking an eye area in a participant's photo is inappropriate for anonymity protection), the author should obtain informed consent.

The following statement should be addressed in separated section entitled “Informed consent”.

“Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study”. If informed consent is not required, the author must state that “this type of study does not require informed consent.”

5) Authorship

The JKNS follows the recommendations for authorship by the ICMJE, 2019 (http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf) and Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals 3rd Edition (KAMJE, 2019, https://www.kamje.or.kr/board/view?b_name=bo_publication&bo_id=13&per_page=).

The rules for authorship are clearly laid out by the ICMJE as follows.

Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work;

Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content;

Final approval of the version to be published;

Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authors should meet conditions of 1, 2, 3, and 4. In addition, an author should be accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done and should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. Authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their coauthors. All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged. These authorship criteria are intended to reserve the status of authorship for those who deserve credit and can take responsibility for the work. The criteria are not intended for use as a means to disqualify colleagues from authorship who otherwise meet authorship criteria by denying them the opportunity to meet criterion 2 or 3. Therefore, all individuals who meet the first criterion should have the opportunity to participate in the review, drafting, and final approval of the manuscript. JKNS's author's policy states that authors are allowed to use artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted technologies (such as large language models, chatbots, image creator, or other) only for English correction or translation to improve the language and readability of thier paper. It is not allowed to use generative AI tools such as large language models for writing manuscripts. If generative AI and AI-assisted technologies has been used in the manuscript preparation, it is essential for the authors to disclose how it was used in both the cover letter and the manuscript itself. Authors bear the responsibility for the scientific integrity of the content generated by AI. AI cannot be listed as an author and cannot be used as a reference. Manuscripts that fail to include necessary information regarding content generated with the assistance of AI may be rejected from review, and previously published papers may be retracted.

6) Role of the committee on the publication ethics for an ethical problem

When there is an ethical issue any of listed above in a submitted manuscript, the committee on the publication ethics performs the following processes.

- Reviewer or editor raises ethical concerns about the manuscript.
- The committee on the publication ethics notifies the author of the ethical issue.
- The Author should answer to this issue.
- If the answer is satisfactory, the committee on the publication ethics will apologize to the author and review process will be continued.
- If the answer is unsatisfactory, the review process will be stopped.
- If the issue is not resolved, the concerns are forwarded to author’s employer or person responsible for research governance at institution.
- If the issue is not resolved after the processes above, the issue is referred to other authorities.


All manuscripts must be written in English. Authors should minimize the use of English abbreviations. Spell out all abbreviations at first occurrence, and then introduce them by placing the abbreviation in parenthesis after the term being abbreviated.
Abbreviation should be avoided as possible as one can. When it is used, full expression of the abbreviation following abbreviated word in parentheses should be given at first use. All units should be given in metric system (The International System of Units : SI units).

Submission and Revision of Manuscript

  1. Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically by using online manuscript submission available at https://submit.jkns.or.kr/. This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. Authors can upload their articles as Microsoft (MS) Word.
    Authors, reviewers, and editors send and receive all correspondence by e-mail and no paper correspondence is necessary.
  2. Upon submission of a manuscript, authors should upload copyright release and author agreement form (http://jkns.or.kr)
  3. Author information: The list of the authors in the manuscript should include only those who were directly involved in the process of the work. Authors can refer to the guideline by Harvard University in 1999 to find details on authorship (http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html).
  4. The editorial board will make a decision on the approval for publication of the submitted manuscripts, and can request any further corrections, revisions, and deletions to the article text if necessary.
  5. The price for all work requiring review, publishing, and reprinting of the paper will be determined by the editorial board.
  6. Authors will receive English editorial comments from the journal upon acceptance of their paper. When the English correction is completed based on the comments, the accepted manuscript should be supplied as a file (MS Word) via e-mail (office@jkns.or.kr).
  7. Data sharing
    J Korean Neurosurg Soc accepts the ICMJE Recommendations for data sharing statement policy (http://icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf). All manuscripts reporting clinical trial results should submit a data sharing statement following the ICMJE guidelines from 1 July 2018. It is recommended to describe about data sharing at the end of main text The form is in the online submission system. Authors may refer to the editorial, “Data Sharing statements for Clinical Trials : A Requirement of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors,” in JKMS Vol. 32, No. 7:1051-1053. The authors may use websites for data sharing such as Mendelay Data (https://data.mendeley.com/) or Harvard Dataverse (https://dataverse.harvard.edu/) or any other sites they prefer.

Manuscript Preparation

  1. Title page
    The title page should be composed of external and internal title pages.
    a)The external title page should contain the article title, and full names of all authors with their institutional affiliations in English. The type of manuscript (Laboratory Investigation, Clinical Article, Case Report, Surgical Note, Review Article) should be also addressed. When the work includes multiple authors with different affiliations, the institution where the research was mainly conducted should be spelled out first, then be followed by foot notes in superscript Arabic numerals beside the authors’ names to describe their affiliation in a consecutive order of the numbers. Then, mark the running head as not to exceed 40 characters in English. The external title page should also contain the address, TEL. and FAX. numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author at the bottom of the page, as well as information on the previous presentation of the manuscript in conferences and funding resources, if necessary
    b)The internal title page should only contain the article title in English. The internal title page must not contain any information on the names and affiliations of the authors.
  2. Manuscript format
    The article should be organized in the order of title, abstract (Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion sections should be included in Laboratory Investigation or Clinical Article, but are not necessary in other types of studies), introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusions, references, tables, and figures or illustrations. The review article may be freely constructed according to the intention of the author. In case reports, materials and methods and results can be replaced with cases.
  3. Abstract
    All manuscripts must contain an abstract. A list of Key Words, with a maximum of six items, should be included at the end of the abstract. The selection of Key Words should be based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) of Index Medicus and the Web site (https://meshb.nlm.nih.gov/search). The abstract should include brief descriptions on the objective, methods, results, and conclusion as well as a detailed description of the data. Letters to the editor should not include an abstract. Abstracts for original works should begin with the statement of the paper’s purpose and end with conclusions. Abstracts for other types of papers should begin with a brief and clear statement of the paper’s purpose, and be followed by appropriate details that support the conclusions of the paper. Word counts limitations of abstract are 400 words for original works and review articles, and 250 words for the other types of articles.
  4. Introduction
    The introduction should address the purpose of the article concisely and include background reports mainly relevant to the purpose of the paper (detailed review of the literature should be addressed in the discussion section).
  5. Materials and Methods
    Materials and Methods section should include sufficient details of the design, objects, and methods of the article in order, as well as the data analysis strategies and control of bias in the study. Enough details need to be addressed in the methodology section of an experimental study so that it can be further replicated by others. When reporting experiments with human subjects, the authors should indicate whether they received an approval from the Institutional Review Board for the study. When reporting experiments with animal subjects, the authors should indicate whether the handling of the animals was supervised by the research board of the affiliated institution or a similar one. Photographs disclosing patients must be accompanied by a signed release form from the patient or family permitting publication. We endorse the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki and expect that all investigations involving human materials have been performed in accordance with these principles. For animal experiment, “the Guiding Principles in the Care and Use of Animals” approved by the American Physiological Society have to be observed. Explanation of the experimental methods should be concise and sufficient for repetition by other qualified investigators. Procedures that have been published previously should not be described in detail. However, new or significant modifications of previously published procedures need full descriptions. The sources of special chemicals or preparations should be given along with their location (name of company, city and state, and country). Method of statistical analyses and criteria of significance level should be described. In Case Reports, case history or case description replace the Materials and Methods section as well as Results section.
    Please inform us the approved number of IRB when you submit the manuscript.
  6. Results
    The authors should describe logically their results of observations and analyses performed using methodology given in the previous section and provide actual data. For biometric measurements in which considerable amount of stochastic variation exists a statistical treatment should be used in principle. The result section should include sorely the findings of the current study, and not refer to previous reports. While an effort should be made to avoid overlapping descriptions by Tables and by main text, important trends and points in the Table should be described in the text. Experimental results should be described using Arabic numbers and the SI unit system.
  7. Discussion
    Discussions about the findings of the research and interpretations in relation to other studies are made. It is necessary to emphasize the new and critical findings of the study, not to repeat the results of the study presented in the previous sections. The meaning and limitation of observed facts should be described, and the conclusion should be related to the objective of the study only when it is supported by the results of the research. It is encouraged for the authors to use subheadings in the discussion section so that the readers can follow the logical flow of the authors’ thought.
  8. Conclusion
    The conclusion section should include a concise statement of the major findings of the study in accordance with the study purpose.
  9. References
    a)Only references cited in text must appear in the reference list and marked in the form of superscript at the end of the sentences they were used in text (example : reference11,15,18)).
    b)All references should be alphabetized by the first author’s last name.
    c)When a work has six or less authors, cite the names of all authors. When a work has over six authors, cite the first six authors’ name followed by “et al.” Abbreviations for journal titles should be congruent with the style of Index Medicus. A journal title with one word does not need to be written out in abbreviation. The styles of references are as follows :
    1Lee LH, Shiu YH, Chiu YT, Lin LS, Wu CM, Wang YC, et al. : Epidemiologic study of head injuries in Taipei City, Taiwan. Chin Med J (Taipei) 50 : 219-225, 1992
    1Conover WJ : Practical Nonparametric Statistics, ed 2. New York : Jon Wiley & Sons, 1971, pp216-218
    <Article in a Book>
    1Ojemann RG : Surgical management of bacterial intracranial aneurysms in Schmideck HH, Sweet HH (eds) : Operative Neurosurgical Techniques. Indications, Methods and Results, ed 2. Orlando : Grune & Stratton, 1988, Vol 2, pp997-1001
    <Internet source>
    1Testa J : The Thomson Reuters journal selection process. Available at : http://wokinfo.com/essays/journal-selection-process/
    (endnote file :https://www.endnote.com/style_download/journalof-the-korean-neurosurgical-society/)
  10. Tables, figures, and illustrations Tables and figure legends should be included below the references pages at the end of the paper, but figures should be submitted separately from the text of paper. The legend for each light microscopic photographs should include names of stain and magnification. The magnification might be expressed as an internal scale bar. Electron microscopic photographs should have an internal scale marker. Description of informed consent for publication is required for figures which include potential privacy images.
    Table should be simple and should not duplicate information in figures. Title all tables and number them with arabic numerals in the order of their citation. Type each table on a separate sheet. Describe all abbreviations. Each column should have an appropriate heading, and if numerical measurements are given, the unit should be added to column heading. The significance of results should be indicated by appropriate statistical analysis. Table footnotes should be indicated with superscript markings. When remarks are used to explain items of the table, the markers should be given in the order of *, †, ‡, §, ||.
    Each figure should be submitted as a separate file, with the figure number as the file name (i.e., Fig1.jpg). When a figure is composed of more than 2 parts, authors should combine the figure in the correct orientation. Separate files without embedded labels should be submitted only if the Editorial board requests them after the peer review. Authors should submit figures in black and white if they want them to be printed in black and white. Authors are responsible for any additional costs of producing color figures.
    The files should have following resolutions for printing : line art at 300 dpi, combination half-tones at 300 dpi, and half-tones (gray scale or color without type or lettering) at 300 dpi. If the quality of the photographs is considered as inappropriate for printing, re-submission of them can be requested by the journal.
    Tables, graphs, figures, and photographs should be used only when necessary.
  11. Technical Note is for description of a novel procedure or technique. It begins with unstructured abstract, followed by description of technique and relevant discussion under necessary subheadings. It may contain no more than 5 tables and figures.
  12. Letters to the editor or commentary letters
    Authors can submit a sound critic or opinion for the specific article published in the journal, topic of general interest to neurosurgeons, personal view on a specific scientific issue, departmental announcements or changes, conference schedules, or other information of the clinical fields. It may contain no more than two figures and no more than one table.

Author Checklist

  1. Before submitting the manuscript, authors should double-check all requirements noted in the agreement form regarding the registration and copyrights of their manuscript. A manuscript that does not fit the author instructions of the journal regarding format and references will be returned to the authors for further correction.
  2. The page numbers in the manuscript should be counted from the page with the abstract, and the name and affiliation of the authors should not appear thereafter.

Review Articles

  1. The authors and topics for review articles will be selected by the editorial board.
  2. Review articles should also undergo the review process.

Special Articles

  1. Special articles are devoted to providing updated reports by specialists in various fields or significant issues (e.g., history of the field) for the members of the society.
  2. The authors and topics of special drafts will be assigned and specially requested by the editorial board.
  3. The authors’ views in special drafts will be respected as much as possible.

Publication and Reprints

  1. Once a manuscript is accepted for publication by the journal, it will be sent to the press, and page proofs will be sent to authors. Authors must respond to the page proofs as soon as possible after making necessary corrections of misspellings, and the location of the photographs, figures or tables. Authors can make corrections for only typing errors, and are not allowed to make any author alteration or substantive changes of the text. Proofs must be returned to the press within 72 hours of receipt. No response from the authors within this time frame will lead the publication of the proof read without corrections, and the editorial board is not responsible for any mistakes or errors occurring in this process.
  2. A reprint order form should be filled out and returned to the press along with the page proofs.

Editor-in-Chief (Hee-Jin Yang, 2021-2023)
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
The Korean Neurosurgical Society, 1F, 18, Heolleung-ro 569-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06376, Korea
TEL : +82-2-525-7552~3 FAX : +82-2-525-7554
E-mail: office@jkns.or.kr

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