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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society > Volume 22(2); 1993 > Article
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 1993;22(2): 169-179.
Calcium Antagonist in the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patient.
Won Ki Kim, Man Bin Yim, Byung Kyu Park, Jang Chull Lee, Eun Ik Son, Dong Won Kim, In Hong Kim
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu, Korea.
ABSTRACT
To evaluate the effectiveness and to find out which grade(clinical and computed tomography) of subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH) patients are most effected with the medication of the calcium antagonist, we did this study. We selected 339 cases(study cases) among a total of 603 cases of SAH who were admitted to our hospital from Sept. 1982 to Aprial 1991. The criteria of study cases are patients who were admitted and who had a brain computed tomography(CT) taken within 3 days after the SAH and who had a clinical grade(Hung & Hess) on admission between I-IV. We divided study cases into 3 groups. Group I:surgery was done more than 7 days after the SAH and together with non-surgical patients, no medication was used(N=126). Group II:surgery was done more than 7 days after teh SAH and together with non-surgical patients medication of the calcium antagonist was given orally(N=120). Group III:surgery was done more than 7 days after the SAH and together with non-surgical patients, medication of nimodipine intravenously was given, and also patients, medication of nimodipine intravenously was given, and also patients who received surgery did within 3 days after the SAH were given intravenous injection and cisternal irrigation of nimodipine(N=93). We compared the overall management outcome and the incidence of delayed ischemic dificit(DID) and unfavorable outcome due to DID in each group. We also analyzed the causes of unfavorable outcome according to the clinical grade on admission and the amount of blood in the cistern seen on the brain CT in each group. The results of this study showed that overall management outcome was improved by using the calcium antagonist. The calcium antagonist reduced the incidence of DID as well as the unfavorable outcome related to DID. In clinical grade III patients on admission, the unfavorable outcome due to DID was significantly lower in group II and III than in I(group I vs. II:p<0.05, group I vs. III:P<0.01). In cases with a large amount of blood in the cistern seen on the brain CT, the unfavorable outcome was significantly lower in groups II and III than in I(group I vs. II:p<0.01, group I vs. III:p<0.05). We conclude that the overall management outcome of aneurismal SAH patients may be improved by using a calcium antagonist and the effect of the calcium antagonist is prominent in clinical grade III patients on admission and patients with a large amounts of blood in the cistern seen on the brain CT.
Key Words: Aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm; Calcium antagonist; Management outcome
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